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Jakarta, as the capital of Indonesia, has a large percentage of buildings. More than 30% of Jakarta region consists of buildings. In addition to transportation, buildings in Jakarta contribute total carbon dioxide emissions significantly. This is certainly comparable to the area of buildings in Jakarta which are quite large. In comparison, according to the literature, buildings in the U.S. contribute 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions.
Energy consumption in the building is quite large for lighting or air conditioning. Energy for the building usually derives from fossil fuels that emit carbon dioxide in significant quantities. In addition, buildings also contribute to the consumption of water and electricity in the region greatly. According to the EPA, the building sector contributes 39% of total energy use, 12% of total water consumption, 68% of total electricity consumption, and 38% of the total carbon dioxide emissions throughout the U.S. (EPA, 2011).

Jakarta, with a quite large percentage building, is able to reduce carbon dioxide emissions through the implementation of green building concepts. The application of green building concept in Jakarta, which will reduce energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings, could potentially reduce emissions of 10 million tons of carbon dioxide per year (World Bank, 2012).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines Green building as the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Green building is also known as a sustainable or high performance building. Green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:• Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources• Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity• Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation

Indonesia has set a target to reduce 26% of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. It is as set out in the Regulation of the President of the Republic of Indonesia Number 61 Year 2011 on the National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (RAN - GRK). In order to support this national effort, Government of Jakarta has committed to contribute reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the Governor Regulation Number 38 Year 2012 on Green Building. Under the regulation, all of the buildings in Jakarta must meet the requirements of green building starting April 2013.

Though recently many property developers claim that their property or buildings are built under the green building concept, the Green Building Council Indonesia (GBCI) states that there are only two buildings in Indonesia, which has been officially certified as Green Building. Compared to the neighboring country, Singapore, Indonesia is far behind in implementing green building. Currently in Singapore there are at least 11,000 buildings that have been certified as Green Building. Among the challenges of applying the green building concept in Indonesia is the cost of green building development which is currently more expensive than the development of ordinary buildings. Bintang Nugroho, Deputy of Organization and Events of GBCI said that the cost to build a green building certified Platinum is 10% higher than the cost to build ordinary buildings, Gold (6%), Silver (3%), and approximately the same cost for Bronze certification.

The Government of Singapore overcomes this challenge by providing money incentives for developers who build the green building. According Ignesjz Kemalawarta, Chairman of the Board of Certification and Advocacy Real
Estate Indonesia (REI), the Government of Indonesia should provide incentives such as the deduction of Land and Building Tax (PBB). Nevertheless, as time goes by, the cost of green building will come down. For comparison, in the United States today the cost of green building is not different from ordinary buildings.

Although the construction costs are quite higher, green building would reduce building operating costs. Naning Adiwoso, GBCI Chairman stated that a commercial building that follows the standard assessment of Greenship usually able to make energy savings between 26% to 40% each month. The savings derived from reduced volume of Air-Conditioning, lighting, as well as water use. Though the initial investment during the building construction is higher, but when the building operates, the building management would have benefits from water and energy savings.

A report from the Montreal-based Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), an international organization established by Canada, Mexico and the U.S. stated that simply constructing more energy-efficient buildings—and upgrading the insulation and windows in the existing ones—could save a whopping 1.7 billion tons annually. The chairman of CEC study, Jonathan Westeinde said that the application of green building concept is the cheapest, quickest, most significant way to make a dent in greenhouse gas emissions.

Based on those studies, Jakarta should be able to further contribute on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The application of green building concept in Jakarta is the strategic role that can be done by Jakarta to reduce greenhouse gas emissions cheaply, quickly and significantly.

_____. 2012. Green Buildings: Cutting Jakarta’s Greenhouse Gases. the story - green building.pdf
A.K., Rintulebda. 9 November 2012. Green Building Solusi Global Warming.
Biello, David. 17 Maret 2008. Green Buildings May Be Cheapest Way to Slow Global Warming.
Erawan, Anto. 28 Juni 2012. ‘Green Property Adalah Keharusan'.
Erawan, Anto. 28 Juni 2012. Ternyata Indonesia Baru Punya Dua Green Building.
Latief, M. 9 September 2011. Indonesia Harus Adopsi Standar "Green Building" Internasional. Indonesia.Harus.Adopsi.Standar.Green.Building.Internasional
Ririh, Natalia. 17 Februari 2011. Saatnya Pengelola Gedung Beralih ke "Green Building".
Ririh, Natalia. 25 Februari 2012. Gedung Pemerintah Jadi Contoh Green Building. Gedung.Pemerintah.Jadi.Contoh.Green.Building
Susanto, Ichwan. 12 Agustus 2011. Sertifikasi Green Building Diluncurkan. Sertifikasi.Green.Building.Diluncurkan
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